You are an ethnographic researcher writing an article for a popular organizational behavior research journal. Your purpose is to identify key problems related to business ethics in a Not-for-Profit and For- Profit organization. In this potential article please complete the following activities:
1.Name of the article, including the complete bibliographic citation, using APA format.
2.Summary/abstract of the article – annotation (sometimes it is helpful to ask yourself the following questions in synthesizing the information:
4.What was done? (e.g., an experimental study investigating the interaction of short term memory and attention)
5.How? (was it done)
6.What were the findings? (identify the major ones)
7.Contributions? (new findings, applications, etc.)
8.Identify at least ten academic sources, at least six of which can be found in the Ashford Online Library if you do find something on the World Wide Web, it must be authored and be a reliable source.
*The descriptions for each source must be at least one paragraph in length.*
SAMPLE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Some of your courses at Ashford University will require you to write an annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography is a working list of references—books, journal articles, online documents, etc.—that you will use for an essay, research paper, or project.
Although there are no strict formatting guidelines for the annotated bibliography itself, each reference should be cited in APA format. After each citation, provide a summary of the source, indicating how it will inform your essay, research paper, or project. Many pertinent ideas and supporting details come from analyzing and summarizing your sources.
An annotated bibliography helps you get a head start on your assignment, and it encourages you to focus your topic as you assess each source, choosing the key ideas and sources that are most valuable for your assignment. Also, you can keep track of your sources as well as the correct formatting for each reference.
**Note: Many of the references listed here are older sources. Please be aware that some Ashford classes may require that students use sources that were published within the last five years.
Provided below is a sample annotated bibliography.
Aslanian, C. B. (2001). Adult students today. New York, NY: The College Board.
Exceptional resource for statistics on adult learners and their motivation for returning to school. The author presents a study spanning 20 years that illustrates extensive demographics including average age, income, travel distance, cost, ethnicity, gender, religion, and field of study.
Brookfield, S. (n.d.). Adult learning: An overview. Retrieved March 26, 2002, from http://www.nl.edu/ace/ Resources/Documents/ AdultLearning.html
Excellent and thorough article covering four major research areas: self-directed learning, critical reflection, experiential learning, and learning to learn. The author refutes current definitions of adult learning and motivation and proposes instead that culture, ethnicity, and personality have greater significance than are espoused in the current myths that describe adult learners. This article is interesting to consider because it diametrically opposes the existing and widely accepted views on the subject.
Donaldson, J. F., Graham, S. W., Martindill, W., & Bradley, S. (2000). Adult undergraduate students: How do they define their experiences and their success? Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 48(2) 2-11. Retrieved from the ERIC database.
A small study confirming current thinking that adults return to school for primarily external reasons, e.g., a major life event or career advancement. The research further illustrates that actual success in learning comes from an internal locus of control that includes life experience, maturity, motivation, and self-monitoring.
Marienau, C. (1999). Self-assessment at work: Outcome of adult learners’ reflections on practice. Adult Education Quarterly, 49(3), 135. Retrieved from the ProQuest database.
A qualitative study of adults in graduate programs and their use of self-assessment and experiential learning from the perspectives of performance at work and personal development. This article is enlightening, for it explores the benefits to the adult learner of self-assessment and introspection. The concept of purposefulness and the need for the adult learner to connect learning with concrete experience are discussed.
Merriam, S. B., & Caffarella, R. S. (2001). Adult learning theories, principles and applications. San Francisco, CA: Wiley
This is a textbook used for the training of instructors of adult students. There are several excellent and pertinent chapters devoted to the self-determination of the adult student and the need for programs to be designed that allow adults to use their problem-solving skills.
Moore, B. L. (1999). Adult student learners. Retrieved April 3, 2002, from http://www.sa.psu.edu/sara/ pulse/adults_65shtml
This website contained a survey of adult learners’ perceptions of their education experience at Penn State. The study contains a large survey sample and generally confirms the findings of other studies at major universities. The important information gleaned is that the emphasis on adult learner programs at historically traditional universities is a much higher priority due to the increasing population of adult students.
Sheldon, K. M., & Houser, M. L. (2001). General motivation for college measure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 152-165. Retrieved from the OVID database.
This source is a psychosocial instrument designed to measure adult students’ general motivation for attending college. This instrument is appropriate to my research topic because it profiles adult students and rates motivation in terms of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. It supports the findings in my other sources and adds another component: the pursuit of happiness.
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