Diagnosis and information related to diabetes

• Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death listed in the United States.
• When first diagnosed, doctor probably sent patient home with a lot of information. That’s a great place to start.
• Some patients may be confused by how their lifestyle will have to change. Some patients may not know even how serious the complications may be.
• This information is a resource for educating, empowering people living with diabetes, to help not only the people who are affected by diabetes but also to inform everyone on how to help prevent the onset of diabetes.
1 What is diabetes?
• History of diabetes
• Diabetes Mellitus
• Insulin deficiency
• Hyperglycemia
II Signs and symptoms
III Prevalence of diabetes
IV Classification and Pathophysiology of diabetes
• Type 1 diabetes (B-cell destruction, usually leading to insulin deficiency)
• Type 2 diabetes (range from insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency to a predominantly secretory defect with insulin resistance)
• Other specific types (genetic defects of B-cell function, genetic defects in insulin action, diseases of the exocrine pancreas, drug or chemical induced, infections,
• Gestational diabetes mellitus
V Diagnosis
1. HbA1c= or >6.5%
2. FPG = or >126 mg/ dl(7.0 mmol/l)
3. 2-h plasma glucose =>200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) during an OGTT.
VI Management
1. Types 1 diabetes
2. Types 2 diabetes
3. Medication commonly used to treat diabetes
VII Complications of diabetes
A. Cardiovascular disease
B. Heart and blood vessel disease
C. High blood pressure
D. Nephropathy
E. Neuropathy
F. Autoimmune disorders (in patients with type 1 diabetes): thyroiditis, anemia, celiac disease.
VIII. Management of some common complications
A. Hypoglycemia
B. Hyperglycemia
C. Skin care
D. Foot ulcers
E. Vision and dentation
IX. Prevention of diabetes
A. Healthy eating
B. Physical activity and Exercise
X. Life with Diabetes
A. Coping with diabetes
B. Family life and children with diabetes
C. Work, school and Travel.
XI. The future

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