? What are the four properties of skeletal muscle?
? What is the difference between a muscle?s origin and insertion?
? Describe the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction: When the muscle develops tension and shortens, what happens to the I band? the A band? the H zone?
? Explain the power stroke and crossbridge cycling.
? What triggers chemomechanical coupling? What roles do ATP binding and ATP hydrolysis play in the process?
? Voluntary movement is initiated in which part of the brain?
? What roles do the cerebellum and basal ganglia play during voluntary movement?
? What is the difference between afferent and efferent neurons? Under which classification does a motor neuron fall?
? How is a motor neuron?s resting membrane potential created and what happens when its membrane becomes depolarized? repolarized? hyperpolarized?
? What does the innervation ratio of a motor unit indicate about its function?
? Describe the role of proprioceptors during voluntary motion: How do the Stretch Reflex and Tendon Reflex differ?
? What is the difference between a single twitch, unfused tetanus and fused tetanus?
? How does the nervous system gradate tension generation when activating motor units?
? Summarize the difference between type I, type IIa and type IIx fibers: Which fibers are activated first according to the size principle of motor unit recruitment?
? Does maximal recruitment generally occur due to voluntary activation? What dictates the relative contribution of recruitment vs. rate coding in gradating muscle force?
? Define fatigue of voluntary muscular effort: What is the difference between fatigue and task failure during voluntary movement?
? What are the two components of neuromuscular fatigue? During an eight-repetition resistance-training set to momentary muscular failure, which form of fatigue will
likely predominantly impair performance in a well-motivated subject?
? What are the potential sources of neuromuscular fatigue in the central nervous system? peripheral nervous system? muscle?
? What does electromyography measure and how will the EMG signal change during maximal sustained voluntary contractions? submaximal sustained voluntary contractions?
? What is muscle wisdom and muscle potentiation?
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