Sensation and Perception/States of Consciousness

Instructions
Answer the following short essay questions, on this document. Please use a different color or bold/italicize your font so I can distinguish your answers. Use complete sentences and write in paragraph form. Be sure to explain each of your items adequately, but at the same time be concise. Each answer should be no more than ¼ – ½ page long.
Submit to the drop box by the due date.
(Questions 1-4 are from chapter 3 on sensation and perception)
1. Define sensation and Perception. Discuss each of the senses and how researchers study sensation and perception.
2. Define and provide original examples from your own experience of (a) an absolute threshold; (b) a difference threshold; and (c) adaptation.
3. According to your text, 50 million Americans suffer from chronic pain. Describe three of the pain-management techniques mentioned in your text. Indicate the applications for which each technique is most appropriate.
4. Describe top-down processing and bottom-up processing. In your response distinguish between the two and discuss how they are related/interact.

(Questions 5-8 are from chapter 4 on states of consciousness)

5. Briefly discuss the reasons for needing sleep. Contrast NREM and REM sleep. Why is there a “paradox” in REM sleep? Discuss dreams and REM vs. NREM sleep.
6. The text states that there are common elements or themes that occur in everyone’s dreams. Why do we dream about what we dream about? Answer this question from the perspective of (a) wish-fulfillment and (b) dreams-for-survival theory. Provide illustrative examples.
7. Hypnosis and meditation are two techniques used in therapy. What is hypnosis? Cite three successful applications of the technique of hypnosis. Describe what meditation is and how it is currently viewed by researchers. What evidence is there that one could use mediation to replace drugs for relaxation?
8. Define and discuss psychoactive drugs and addictive drugs. Describe the different ways in which psychoactive drugs can enhance or impede the activity of neurotransmitters, providing examples where possible.

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