Social Impact of Business

Question 1 of 20
Corporations have a role in establishing their community’s:

A. tax base.

B. safety.

C. economic growth.

D. All of the above
Question 2 of 20

Modern corporations should be socially responsible because they:

A. are responsible to the stockholders of the company.

B. create jobs, influencing the lives of employees.

C. are highly profitable.

D. All of the above

Question 3 of 20

A modern-day expression of the charity principle does NOT include:

A. balancing the interests and needs of many diverse groups in society.

B. expressions of corporate philanthropy.

C. voluntary actions to promote the social good.

D. taking a paternalistic approach to community affairs.

Question 4 of 20

Which of the following is NOT an example of the charity principle?

A. Endowing public libraries

B. Supporting settlement houses for the poor

C. Supporting a governmental protection agency

D. Donating money to a family-counseling center

Question 5 of 20

The antitrust cases brought against Microsoft by regulators in the United States and Europe are examples of:

A. promoting long-term profits for business.

B. government efforts to reduce a company’s abuses of its monopoly power in the marketplace.

C. correcting social problems caused by business.

D. None of the above

Question 6 of 20

Which of the following is an argument in favor of corporate social responsibility?

A. It is always good business to act charitably.

B. It balances businesses’ power with their responsibility to act.

C. Corporate reputation is the most critical factor driving profits.

D. Promotes short-term profitability for businesses.

Question 7 of 20

Positive reputation can be valued as an intangible corporate:

A. asset.

B. liability.

C. charity.

D. expense.

Question 8 of 20

Which of the following examples does NOT show a company guided by enlightened self-interest?

A. A company providing the best quality product at a fair price

B. A company providing assistance to employees who attend evening college

C. A company breaking past records by maximizing quarterly profits

D. A company vice-president invited to attend a local community’s town planning meeting

Question 9 of 20

When undertaking social initiatives, a company:

A. must take out social responsibility insurance.

B. will always receive long-term profits.

C. may sacrifice short-term profits.

D. risks going bankrupt in nearly all cases.

Question 10 of 20

Social responsibility reflects:

A. the type of governmental rule and degree of individual freedom in a nation.

B. social activists’ power and the extent that social regulation is found in a country.

C. cultural values and traditions, taking different forms in different societies.

D. All of the above

Question 11 of 20

Which of the following is NOT a driver of the Corporate Social Responsiveness phase of Corporate Social Responsibility?

A. Religious/ethnic beliefs

B. Social unrest/protest

C. Stakeholder pressures

D. Public policy/government regulations

Question 12 of 20

All of the following are examples of the phases of Corporate Social Responsibility EXCEPT:

A. Corporate/Global Citizenship.

B. Corporate Charity Principle.

C. Corporate Social Stewardship.

D. Corporate/Business Ethics.

Question 13 of 20

As part of a continuing company commitment to monitor its manufacturing facilities, Mattel formed:

A. the “Zero Tolerance” program.

B. the Manufacturing Assessment Team.

C. the Independent Monitoring Council.

D. All of the above

Question 14 of 20

The term corporate citizenship has been used to refer to:

A. businesses acting responsibly toward stakeholders.

B. moral obligations to society at large.

C. demands made by the trustees of the public’s interests.

D. All of the above

Question 15 of 20

Which of the following principles of corporate citizenship strive for a competitive return on investment?

A. Consumer Relations

B. Investor Relations

C. Employee Relations

D. Supplier Relations

Question 16 of 20
Which of the following is NOT a professional association and consultancy in corporate social responsibility?

A. Business for Social Responsibility

B. Center for Global Citizenship

C. Corporate Social Responsibility Europe

D. Asian Forum on Corporate Social Responsibility

Question 17 of 20

A company that has just begun reporting to stakeholders is in which stage of the corporate citizenship process?

A. Innovative stage

B. Integrated stage

C. Engaged stage

D. Transforming stage

Question 18 of 20

Managers responding to the needs of the local education system as a normal or routine aspect of its operations is an example of an organization in the:

A. innovative stage.

B. integrated stage.

C. transforming stage.

D. engaged stage.

Question 19 of 20

According to a study of corporate citizenship in Latin America and Canada, which of the following is NOT one of the four levels of corporate social responsibility activity?

A. Delayed

B. Running

C. Catching up

D. Stalled

Question 20 of 20

Which of the following is NOT one of the four quadrants of the balanced scorecard approach?

A. People and knowledge

B. Internal

C. External

D. Financial



Question 1 of 20


People’s ethical beliefs come from:

A. legislative action and judicial decisions.

B. reading the company’s profit and loss statements.

C. their religious background, family, and education.

D. the organization’s code of ethics.

Question 2 of 20


People everywhere depend on ethical systems to tell them whether their actions are:

A. legal or illegal.

B. right or wrong.

C. financially attainable or not.

D. logical and in sound judgment.

Question 3 of 20
Under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, corporations are required to:

A. have their CEO and CFO sign off on financial statements as accurate and fair.

B. have their audit committee comprised of only executives employed by the firm.

C. collect reimbursements from the U.S. government if financial restatements occur.

D. All of the above

Question 4 of 20
Cross-cultural contradictions arise due to:

A. the emergence of a developing country’s economic power.

B. religious differences practiced by business executives.

C. differences between home and host countries’ ethical standards.

D. All of the above

Question 5 of 20
As business becomes increasingly global:

A. it must turn to national laws for guidance.

B. ethical issues become issues of free trade.

C. a global code of conduct will emerge for businesses.

D. cross-cultural contradictions will increase.

Question 6 of 20
Which of the following was NOT a moral value acknowledged by Aristotle?

A. Temperance

B. Charity

C. Justice

D. Prudence

Question 7 of 20
According to Clarence Walton, the key to ethical standards in business is:

A. personal character.

B. highly paid executives.

C. clear governmental directives.

D. an ethics professor on the board of directors.

Question 8 of 20
Business managers need a set of ethical guidelines to help them:

A. understand the changing customs throughout the world.

B. justify the resolution which best helps themselves.

C. identify and analyze the nature of ethical problems.

D. None of the above

Question 9 of 20
According to the utilitarian reasoning, if the benefits outweigh the costs, then the action is ethical because it produces:

A. the greatest good for the greatest number of people.

B. an equal amount of good for an equal number of people.

C. the greatest good for a select number of people.

D. an equal amount of good for the greatest number of people.

Question 10 of 20
A just or fair ethical decision occurs when:

A. the rights of all affected are considered.

B. the greatest good for those with power is achieved.

C. benefits and burdens are distributed equally.

D. All of the above

Question 11 of 20
Whistle-blowing occurs when:

A. a company president calls on employees in the organization to observe the firm’s code of ethics.

B. an employee goes public with a complaint after failing to convince the company to correct an alleged abuse.

C. a consumer group calls for a boycott of a firm’s product due to questionable advertisements.

D. an employee is found guilty of criminal wrongdoing by a government agency.

Question 12 of 20
The core components upon which a company’s ethical performance depends include:

A. the values and virtues of the managers.

B. the personal character of the managers and employees.

C. the traditions, attitudes, and business practices built into a company’s culture.

D. All of the above

Question 13 of 20
Which of the following is NOT one of the five core values developed by the Holt Company?

A. Efficiency

B. Dynamic

C. Success

D. Ethics

Question 14 of 20
If a manager approaches ethics with benevolence in mind, he or she would stress what?

A. Friendly relations with an employee

B. Company rules and procedures

C. Laws and professional codes

D. Economic efficiency

Question 15 of 20
The Kanebo Limited scandal is an example of a lapse in:

A. information technology ethics.

B. marketing ethics.

C. finance ethics.

D. accounting ethics.

Question 16 of 20
A giant step is taken toward improving ethical performance throughout the company when:

A. the firm hires a university ethics professor to lecture employees on moral philosophy.

B. the Justice Department launches an investigation of the firm’s pricing practices.

C. senior-level managers signal to employees that they believe ethics is a high priority.

D. a consumer hot line is created and staffed 24 hours a day.

Question 17 of 20
Which of the following statements is true?

A. In Japan, most codes were found to be a mixture of legal compliance and statements of mission.

B. The rationale underlying corporate codes of ethics are the same from country to country.

C. The values and mission codes are least popular with European and Canadian companies.

D. Codes of ethics in Latin America primarily focus on guidelines for accepting or refusing gifts.

Question 18 of 20
The Institute for Corporate Ethics was created to:

A. guide managers when an ethical dilemma arises.

B. provide assistance for developing ethics policies for organizations.

C. develop and conduct training programs for senior managers.

D. oversee ethics audits.

Question 19 of 20
The critical component in installing an effective ethics program is:

A. to allow all employees the freedom to act as they wish.

B. in hiring an expensive ethics consultant.

C. the integration of various ethics safeguards into a comprehensive program.

D. maintaining the position as the industry sales leader.

Question 20 of 20
One of the most widespread and potentially powerful efforts to combat bribery was initiated by:

A. the Global Forum on Fighting Corruption.

B. the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

C. International Labour Organization.

D. the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Policy Act.




Question 1 of 20

In which year was the 1st World Summit on Sustainable Development held?

A. 1982

B. 1985

C. 1990

D. 1992

Question 2 of 20

Depletion of the ozone layer, destruction of the rain forests, and species extinctions have an impact on:

A. all of society.

B. a particular region.

C. a particular nation.

D. none of society.

Question 3 of 20

Sustainable development:

A. meets the needs of the present while compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

B. gives precedence to environmental over economic considerations.

C. balances economic and environmental considerations.

D. sacrifices less important immediate needs in order to fulfill important future needs.

Question 4 of 20

An attempt to apply the concept of sustainable development has been made by an initiative called The Natural Step, which was created in which country?

A. Brazil

B. Denmark

C. Sweden

D. Switzerland

Question 5 of 20

Which of the following is an example of a nonrenewable resource?

A. Coal

B. Fresh water

C. Timber

D. Fish

Question 6 of 20

Critics argue that offset factors to the “limits to growth hypothesis” include:

A. depletion of nonrenewable resources will force people to find substitutes.

B. markets will be subjected to greater governmental control.

C. more advanced computer simulation models will better predict the future.

D. technological development will slow in resource-scarce nations.

Question 7 of 20

A thin layer of gas that protects the earth from excessive ultraviolet radiation from the sun is:

A. ozone.

B. carbon dioxide.

C. methane.

D. oxygen.

Question 8 of 20

The goal of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development is to encourage:

A. high standards of environmental management and to promote closer cooperation among businesses, governments, and other organizations.

B. world political and business leaders to conserve the earth’s biological resources, particularly in species-rich tropical forests.

C. poorer countries to develop their economies in an environmentally sustainable way.

D. cutting CFC production and use by 50 percent by 2010.

Question 9 of 20

Which of the following is an example of industrial ecology in practice?

A. Developing a paper recycling program in business offices

B. Using wastes from one process as raw materials for another process

C. Manufacturing recyclable containers for products

D. All of the above

Question 10 of 20

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created:

A. to monitor and regulate nuclear activity.

B. in 1970 to coordinate most of the government’s efforts to protect the environment.

C. to monitor and regulate occupational health and safety standards.

D. All of the above

Question 11 of 20

Which of the following statements is NOT true with respect to acid rain?

A. A primary source of acid rain is coal-fired utilities.

B. Acid rain occurs when carbon dioxide combines with water vapor in the atmosphere.

C. Acid rain is worse in some regions of the United States than others.

D. Acid rain degrades buildings.

Question 12 of 20

Which country has made the greatest progress in reducing its solid waste stream?

A. United Kingdom

B. Germany

C. Japan

D. United States

Question 13 of 20

Which of the following statements is NOT true about environmental standards?

A. Regulatory agencies can establish standard allowable levels of pollutants.

B. The government has the power to command business firms to comply with certain standards.

C. The government rarely interferes in a business’s choice of pollution technology.

D. They are the most widely used methods of regulation.

Question 14 of 20

Which of the following is NOT a cost of environmental regulation?

A. Unemployment

B. Reduced capital investment

C. Corporate restructuring

D. Lowered productivity

Question 15 of 20

Which of the following is indicative of a firm in the pollution prevention stage of the corporate environmental responsibility model?

A. Realizing that it would be less efficient and more expensive to prevent pollution before it is created

B. Focusing on all environmental impacts of the product life-cycle

C. Minimizing or eliminating waste before it is created

D. Incurring losses due to environmental costs

Question 16 of 20

Which of the following is the most advanced stage of corporate environmental responsibility?

A. Pollution prevention stage

B. Clean technology stage

C. Product stewardship stage

D. Green management stage

Question 17 of 20

Continuing activities indefinitely, without altering the carrying capacity of the earth’s ecosystem, is a characteristic of:

A. an ecologically sustainable organization.

B. concerned citizens.

C. a code of environmental conduct.

D. environmental regulation.

Question 18 of 20

Some researchers believe that business firms moving towards ecological sustainability results in:

A. competitive advantages.

B. decreased worker productivity.

C. more government regulation.

D. less money for shareholders.

Question 19 of 20

Companies that reduce pollution and hazardous waste, reuse or recycle materials, and operate with greater energy efficiency achieve a competitive advantage due to:

A. technological innovation.

B. product differentiation.

C. green marketing.

D. cost savings.

Question 20 of 20

When companies develop a reputation for environmental excellence, and they produce and deliver products and services designed to attract environmentally aware customers, this is called:

A. technological innovation.

B. strategic planning.

C. green marketing.

D. cost savings.



Question 1 of 20  

Nanotechnology is the:



A. ability to create manmade structures just a few billionths of a meter in size.  
B. more advanced form of e-commerce.  
C. technological innovation developed by an entrepreneurial firm.  
D. All of the above  


Question 2 of 20  

By the mid-2000s, nanotech materials found their way into all of the following consumer products EXCEPT:



A. wrinkle-resistant clothing.  
B. sunscreen.  
C. tennis balls.  
D. tennis rackets.  


Question 3 of 20  

Telecommunications has:



A. diminished the human touch in our communications.  
B. enhanced the human dimensions in our communications.  
C. reduced international communications.  
D. limited our communication efforts in outer space.  


Question 4 of 20  

Which of the following is NOT true about the service phase of technology?



A. It was the fourth phase in the development of technology.  
B. It emphasized providing services.  
C. It required manual and intellectual skills.  
D. It dominated from 1900 to 1960.  


Question 5 of 20  

The phase of technology that focuses on building material goods and manual labor is:



A. agrarian.  
B. service.  
C. industrial.  
D. information.  


Question 6 of 20  

Cyberspace, an electronic network of linked systems, is where:



A. old, deleted files are sent until the recycle bin is emptied.  
B. business-to-business commerce is conducted.  
C. government strategic plans are stored, safe from computer hackers.  
D. information is stored, ideas are described, and communication takes place.  


Question 7 of 20  

The buying and selling of goods and services electronically is called:



A. m-commerce.  
B. e-commerce.  
C. telecommunications.  
D. software piracy.  


Question 8 of 20  

Technology superpowers spawned the system of:



A. platform-to-platform commerce.  
B. e-commerce.  
C. Internet e-mail exchange.  
D. All of the above  


Question 9 of 20  

Brazil provided an interesting test case for technological development over the question of:



A. regulating mobile business.  
B. creating an Internet sales tax.  
C. free or fee Internet access.  
D. government-subsidized computer purchases.  


Question 10 of 20 is an example of:



A. a blog.  
B. a vlog.  
C. a RSS.  
D. None of the above  


Question 11 of 20  

The digital divide describes the gap between those:



A. individuals who have technology and those who do not.  
B. businesses who use e-business and those who do not.  
C. hospitals that use online information and those who do not.  
D. individuals who have broadband technology and those who do not.  


Question 12 of 20  

The digital divide was first found in the United States:



A. and is restricted to the U.S.  
B. but experts fear it might spread to Canada.  
C. but has spread globally.  
D. but has been eradicated by educational programs.  


Question 13 of 20  

Which of the following countries is one of the safest in the world in the category of violent crime, but has seen a significant increase in cyber-crime?



A. China  
B. The United States  
C. Japan  
D. Great Britain  


Question 14 of 20  

When a German utility firm was ordered by the German government to turn over all its employees’ records so they could be searched for terrorists linked to the September 11, 2001 attacks in the U.S., the firm:



A. refused, although sympathetic to the U.S. investigation.  
B. resisted, but lost its fight due to a World Court ruling.  
C. complied with the request, adhering to the U.S. Patriot Act.  
D. provided false documents to protect their employees’ privacy.  


Question 15 of 20  

IT-ISAC enables the sharing of sensitive information about cyberattacks among:



A. NATO governments.  
B. technology firms.  
C. Southeast Asian businesses.  
D. Canadian and American computer hackers.  


Question 16 of 20  

Digital certificates are:



A. replacing birth certificates, preventing decay or falsification.  
B. old-fashioned stock certificates now stored digitally by stockbrokers.  
C. encrypted computer files, serving as identification cards and signatures online.  
D. All of the above  


Question 17 of 20  

The Child Online Protection Act, passed in 1998:



A. specifically applies to children under 13 years of age.  
B. has settled the debate over protecting children from adult-oriented Web sites.  
C. has been a model for many European countries’ legislation.  
D. was vetoed by President Bush as too difficult and too costly to enforce.  


Question 18 of 20  

The practice of downloading copyrighted songs was challenged because it:



A. created congestion and overloaded demands on the servers.  
B. denied legitimate compensation to the recording artists.  
C. favored major recording companies and selective artists over others.  
D. resulted in bankruptcy for retail music outlets across the country.  


Question 19 of 20  

In 2003, the United Nations General Assembly considered three proposals aimed at human cloning. The proposal strongly pushed by the United States:



A. called for a ban of reproductive cloning.  
B. called for the fate of therapeutic cloning to be determined by individual nations.  
C. called for a ban of all types of cloning.  
D. argued that the issue should be deferred for a couple of years.  


Question 20 of 20  

The safety of genetically modified foods:



A. was challenged most noticeably in Europe but has spread to other countries.  
B. has been well-documented since its beginning.  
C. is now in the hands of governments, ensuring its safety for human consumption.  
D. has never been questioned in the United States.  





Question 1 of 20  

Which of the following statements is NOT true about stockholders?



  A. They are the legal owners of business corporations.  
B. They own equal shares of company assets.  
C. They are the part owners of the company.  
D. Managers pay close attention to their needs and interests.  


Question 2 of 20  

Institutional investors are sometimes referred to as:



A. Main Street investors.  
B. Wall Street investors.  
C. inside investors.  
D. outside investors.  


Question 3 of 20  

In the mid- to late-1990s the stock market was a:



A. bull market.  
B. market in which share prices fell overall.  
C. bear market.  
D. None of the above  


Question 4 of 20  

Corporate governance involves the exercise of control over a company’s:



A. finance and accounting departments.  
B. entire operations.  
C. manufacturing facilities.  
D. marketing and human resources departments.  


Question 5 of 20  

The directors of a company are a central factor in corporate governance because they:



A. exercise formal legal authority over company policy.  
B. have the highest stake in the performance of the company.  
C. have a moral responsibility to fulfill the needs of both the company’s employees and customers.  
D. inherited the business from their predecessors.  


Question 6 of 20  

What was a major contributor to the collapse of Enron in 2001?



A. The company’s top executives made bad investments.  
B. Several failed merger attempts with other firms.  
C. Lax oversight by the company’s audit committee.  
D. The bear market of the early 2000s.  


Question 7 of 20  

How are directors (members of corporate boards) selected?



A. Shareholders elect the directors from a list of candidates.  
B. The company’s CEO appoints the directors.  
C. The nominating committee elects the directors.  
D. Shareholders with the greatest proportional ownership in the company become directors.  


Question 8 of 20  

The “agency problem” arises when:



A. owners manage their company on their own behalf.  
B. there is no separation of ownership and control in a company.  
C. managers act in their own interest, rather than in the interest of shareholders.  
D. shareholders act in their own interest, rather than in the interest of the board.  


Question 9 of 20  

A reason for institutions becoming more assertive in promoting the interests of their member investors is:



A. it is difficult for institutions to sell their holdings.  
B. their members want them to.  
C. institutions have greater flexibility in selling stocks.  
D. institutions have nominated members on the finance committee of the board of directors.  





Question 10 of 20  

The mission of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is to:



A. protect shareholders’ rights by making sure that stock markets are run fairly.  
B. protect companies from hostile takeovers.  
C. ensure that institutional investors do not take control of company management.  
  D. ensure that the federal treasury receives its share of the revenues from stock trading.  


Question 11 of 20  

The Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 outlaws:



A. any manipulative or deceptive device used to trade stocks.  
B. compensating company executives with stock options.  
C. trading in stocks by institutions.  
D. buying stock in a company for which you work.  


Question 12 of 20  

Which organization brings together 300 nonprofit groups to espouse the consumer viewpoint?



A. Consumers Union  
B. Consumer Federation of America  
C. National Consumer League  
D. Public Citizen  


Question 13 of 20  

A goal of the consumer movement is to make consumer power:



A. exceed the rights and powers of firms that sell goods and services.  
B. exceed the rights and powers of the Food and Drug Administration.  
  C. an effective counterbalance to the rights and powers of firms that sell goods and services.  
  D. an effective counterbalance to the rights and powers of the Food and Drug Administration.  


Question 14 of 20  

Which of the following is a core right of consumers?



A. The right to safety  
B. The right to be represented  
C. The right to purchase  
D. The right to return goods.  


Question 15 of 20  

Manufacturers making false or misleading claims about a competitor’s product is:



A. illegal but ethical.  
B. illegal and unethical.  
C. legal but unethical.  
D. legal and unethical.  


Question 16 of 20  

Online shoppers have always been concerned that:



A. they receive online ads for products similar to the ones they bought earlier on the Web.  
B. their favorite Web sites provide a large variety of products and services.  
C. the government might become overly involved in protecting consumer privacy.  
D. information they reveal in the course of a sales transaction might be misused.  


Question 17 of 20  

Which organization advocates the adoption, by businesses, of voluntary policies for protecting the privacy of individuals’ information disclosed during electronic transactions?



A. Online Privacy Alliance  
B. Web Site Alliance  
C. Open Profiling Standard  
D. Federal Trade Commission  


Question 18 of 20  

The burden of responsibility for product performance has shifted to the producer, under the legal doctrine of:



A. rational liability.  
B. product liability.  
C. consumer liability.  
D. supplier liability.  


Question 19 of 20  

Under proposals to establish uniform federal standards for determining liability:



A. plaintiffs would be discouraged from proceeding to trial.  
B. companies would not have to go through repeated trials on the same charges in different states.  
C. judges rather than juries would determine the original amount of punitive damages.  
D. consumers would have to prove that a manufacturer knew or should have known that a product design was defective.  


Question 20 of 20  

In some cases, businesses have banded together to agree on how they will treat their customers. This is called:



A. the code of regulation.  
B. the consumer affairs doctrine.  
C. voluntary industry codes of conduct.  
D. industry action standards.  


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