What is ethics?

1. Give and explain a definition of ethics and explain the two requirements that must be met in order to engage in the study of ethics. (5 points)
2. Sophists/Relativism (choose one question, worth 25 point)

a. Protagoras claims that “man is the measure of all things.” Explain what he means and include in your answer a discussion of ethical relativism.

b. Discuss the arguments concerning justice in both the Ring of Gyges and Thrasymachus’ account. Explain the reasoning as well as the significance this has to

the nature of justice according to relativists.

c. Identify the core principles and supporting arguments of relativism.

3. Socratic/Platonic Theory (choose one question, worth 25 points)

a. Socrates argues that “knowledge is virtue.” Explain what this means especially in light of Protagoras’ claims. In what ways does Socrates differ from the

Sophists/Relativists? (Think about Callicles as well.)

b. Explain the core principle of justice, namely, that justice is the harmony of the soul, and how it can be used to distinguish between good and evil action.

c. Identify the core principles and supporting arguments of the Socratic/Platonic Theory.

4. Aristotelian Theory (choose one question, worth 25 points)

a. What is the telos the human life and why is it so significant to Aristotle’s theory? Explain the method and reasoning that Aristotle uses to determine it.

b. How is the telos of the human life achieved? Explain the idea of virtue.

c. Identify the core principles and supporting arguments of Aristotle’s theory.

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